Wednesday, December 24, 2008
Monday, December 22, 2008
White hat: Internal linking, reciprocal linking, content creation, writing for others, and site optimization
This is a list of what are considered industry best practices. Typically, a Site must grow organically to an extent before it can reach the top of the list. This is how ethical competitors approach SEO. These are the best and most highly regarded methods of enhancing your Web Site ranking.
Gray hat: Cloaking, paid links, and duplicate content
Don’t do it. iProspect offers, “Just as participating in unethical sales, marketing and advertising practices offline can result in negative publicity, sanctions by trade organizations, or actions by government/law enforcement authorities — unethical online tactics (particularly search engine optimization) can significantly damage your online brand.”
Black hat: Keyword stuffing, hidden text, cloaking, doorway pages, redirects, duplicate sites, and interlinking
Absolutely no way. Utilizing any of these tactics will mean that you will be awarded with penalizations or a ban on your Site. If you encounter a competitor that uses these tactics, they should be reported. Furthermore, in the long run, any website that utilizes any of these techniques based on bogus content, will have a short life at the top.
Why are advertorials designed to be deceptive? According to the Online Journalism Review, “In the world of online publication, where the nature of the medium is that both journalistic sites and their ads are fraught with slick graphics, clear labeling of articles and advertisements can be key to keeping potential readers aware of what they are reading. However, when an advertorial is not labeled as an advertisement but as an 'InfoSite,' or with other such euphemistic labels, it may serve to lure readers into ads.” Everything about the appearance of an advertorial is designed to make the user think it is informative content, rather than paid advertising. The content is written in such a way as the user will read it like a journalistic article. The central conflicting aspect of the editorial is that it creates the idea that users are reading objective editorial content.
What are the benefits of advertorials? Advertorials do offer a great deal of information about the product, service, and industry. They also offer the benefit of no-risk product demonstration. Often advertorials will have increased credibility (or perceived credibility) due to the length, amount, and complexity of content included. The content also is assumed to have value and relevance to the reader.
If utilizing the advertorial, it is necessary to properly disclose the nature of the information. Scott Angus, editor of the Janesville Gazette (WI) offers some pointers. They must be properly labeled as “paid advertisements.” A change in font and layout from the rest of the content will keep them distinct from the journalistic articles. Third party disclaimers, or labels from the media organization running the advertorial, will also increase the ethical nature of the advertorial.
At the start, Web design was basic HTML (hyper text markup language) coding because it allowed Sites to link up. It wasn’t fancy, but it had possibilities. These Web Sites, called first generation sites, contained limited graphics and linear layouts. Here is an example of a first generation Site. Slower modems could more easily transfer the information. Second generation Web Sites are probably what most of us think of when we reference 90’s style design. Here is an example of a second generation Site. It wasn’t until the third generation of Web design that Site had colorful backgrounds and animation. HTML was gradually becoming more and more complex when CSS (cascading style sheets) became available.
We have currently entered what is being called the fourth generation of Web design. Web Sites have every possibility to be a unique creation through tools such as XML, Java, and Flash. Designers can now add small programs with little effort to their Sites or add interactive elements such as videos, games, and other inclusions. There is software to create templates and designs. There are a wealth of products and information to create a professional and well-designed Web Site. Now, we are able to focus on content, readability, flow, and other aspects of Web design that make the user experience positive and informative.
So, HTML, thanks for everything you did in laying the foundation for our tools today.
WebDesign.org offers a short list of colors and emotions that they are commonly associated with:
RED - Love, strength, sense of power, energy, excitement, danger, leadership
ORANGE - Comfort, friendliness, confidence, courage, steadfastness, playfulness, cheerfulness
YELLOW - Curiosity, intelligence, brightness, amusement, caution, joy, organization
GREEN - Harmony, nature, healing, life, food, health, money
BLUE - Patience, love, peace, tranquility, trustworthiness, stability, acceptance
PURPLE - Wisdom, independence, nobility, ambition, dignity, luxury, royalty
BROWN - Earthiness, nature, durability, tribal, comfort, reliability, primitive
BLACK - Elegance, sophistication, health, dramatic, power, formality, style
WHITE - Goodness, easy, simplicity, cleanliness, purity, fresh, innocence
Deciding on a color scheme for a Web Site can be a frustrating ordeal for many designers, and it often is harder than it sounds. There are even entire programs dedicated to color scheming. One rule of thumb when choosing a color scheme is to select harmonious colors. Some people will get all mavericky and decide that rules were made to be broken, but you will find that most of the time non-harmonious colors clash in a way that isn’t pleasing from the user’s point of view. Bad color schemes aren’t exactly a signal to immediately leave a Web Site, but it means that you as the designer will have to work harder to keep the consumer’s interest.
The bottom line is that color schemes can affect your bottom line. With commercial web sites, it is important to conform to an image that is consistent with the brand and what it offers the consumer. Color, font, tone, graphics – all of these send a message to the consumer about the brand. When deciding on a color scheme, know your target market and know your brand. If the colors fit, wear them.
The consensus is still out on this one, but it sounds promising once marketers learn how to effectively utilize this medium. We market on social networks and we market in video games. Now combine the two with product placements embedded in 3D Virtual Worlds such as “Secondlife,” “Gaia,” and “Entropia.” In these networks, users communicate via avatars, or online virtual character, that they create for themselves. These virtual worlds transport the user into fantastical places that vary as much as the imagination will allow. Who wouldn’t want to teleport on over to the Louvre while sitting at home in your pajamas? The lines between fantasy and reality often become blurred – even with the exchange of real-life dollars. Enter marketing innovators.
Once again, marketing in the future appears to be all about combining entertainment and information. Bill Nissim of iBranz breaks down the real value of advertising in this new virtual world:
1. Consumers have the ability to experience things not currently possible in the real world
2. Product trials in virtual worlds provide a low-risk environment for testing features and benefits
3. You can hire avatars as product ambassadors and experts
4. You can demonstrate your product or service in use through live video or JPEGs
A 2006 study on marketing in virtual worlds did not display positive results, however. 72% of 200 respondents were disappointed with real world marketing in their virtual worlds, and only 7% claimed that the presence of companies could have a positive impact on them. A ray of hope: users stated that they would like to interact more with the brands represented. A Secondlife expert Wagner James Au calls it a failure of the imagination: “To play in Second Life, corporations must first come to a humbling realization: in the context of the fantastic, their brands as they exist in the real world are boring, banal, and unimaginative.” Basically, as with any other type of new media, marketers must adapt to the medium in order to be successful. It can be done. His three tips for successfully marketing in the virtual world are:
1. Leverage the user-generated aspect of the culture – in other worlds, brands that will be successful in marketing to the virtual world will have products that are useful to users in the creation of their world
2. Utilize activities that take place outside the virtual world itself such as message boards and forums, blogs, and conferencing systems
3. Serve the online community’s needs – offer assistance, advice, and information that is of value to them within their virtual world ie tips on how to use the interface
Some companies have been successful either in marketing within existing virtual worlds or through the creation of their own. Secondlife users have “grabbed” over a million copies of a Toyota Scion, and IMAX has introduced sales boosting promotions for movies such as Harry Potter. Coca Cola jumped on the bandwagon with their own Coke Studios where users create music mixes and share them throughout the community. Wells Fargo took the middle ground and created Stagecoach Island through Secondlife to educate users on financial literacy (while simultaneously sending brand message after brand message to a new generation of users).
DOs: The US Small Business Association offers these tips for effectively involving a minority group
1. Don’t make the mistake of thinking that all minorities are alike.
2. Learn as much as you can about your potential customer’s traditions and beliefs.
3. Be careful when translating English, especially slogans, into foreign languages.
4. Use the native language media of the group you want to attract –particularly in print media.
5. Have staff members who speak the language of the ethnic group or groups you are targeting, and make sure signs and fliers printed in the appropriate languages are displayed prominently in your establishment.
6. Reject stereotypes and cliches.
7. In the same vein, sharpen your sensitivity to cultural slurs or taboos.
8. If you can afford to hire a specialty advertising agency or marketing consultant, the money will be well spent.
9. Be prepared to “educate” your audience.
10. Finally, get involved with the minority community.
DON’Ts: Marketing to minorities gone bad
In 1989, the RJ Reynolds company introduced Uptown cigarettes as a menthol cigarette that would appeal “most strongly” to blacks. The American Cancer Society called them out as exploiting the black community, and Mary L. Clarke, a representative of the NAACP stated, “With the poor health among black folks today, we do not need anything else to cause even more health problems. R. J. Reynolds's targeting of blacks is unethical.”
Powermaster Malt Liquor is another dark spot in the history of ethical marketing campaigns. It was targeted to young African American men with G. Heileman Brewing Co. pushing it in predominantly black neighborhoods. The government ordered this one off the market, with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms declaring that the use of the word “power” violated a law for brand names that promote strength. This reasoning makes me ask the question as to why Magnum and Colt 45 are acceptable brand names, but that is a blog for another day.
Subprime loans are made without regard for the borrow’s ability to repay the terms of the loan made to them. This type of predatory lending practice has been widely criticized for its targets in minority groups. In light of the historical claims of discrimination against minorities in the lending market, lenders have marketed loans to minorities under sub-prime programs. African Americans and Hispanics are reported to hold a disproportionate amount of these toxic loans – up to 3 times as many as Caucasians with comparable incomes. As if we needed another reason to feel disdain for the financial sector.
Monday, December 15, 2008
The short film is one aspect of new media that is becoming increasingly popular to get the audience's attention. NY Times' Nat Ives sums it up well: "The motivation to entertain consumers, rather than persuade them through traditional advertising, stems from a changing media landscape in which consumers increasingly avoid, tune out or fast-forward through marketing messages.” The short film can take on many forms for a brand, and in some cases become very popular with audiences, as in the case of BMW's “The Hire” starring Clive Owen as “Driver”, a series of eight short films that debuted at the Cannes film festival and have won several awards.
BMW’s films have been very successful for the brand. In 2001 and 2002, they were a pioneering effort. It was a natural progression for BMW into this type of marketing, as their automobiles are frequently featured in film, and it provides a great outlet to show off style, class, and quality better than the 30 second spot. In the four months following the debut, the films were viewed over 11 million times.
Other brands have since tried their hand at creating short films. One of the most well-known examples of this is Chanel No. 5’s film starring Nicole Kidman as the most famous woman in the world. This film actually served dual purpose for the brand, as it was shortened into a 30 second television spot.
Short films as a marketing tool are still relatively new. They have proven to be useful in the right market for an established brand. They provide entertainment value to the audience in exchange for brand messages, but they can be expensive to make. They seem to work best for the big spenders, but other brands are beginning to branch out into documentary style or low budget short films. What do you see for future implications of the short film as a branding medium – a natural extension from product placement or high cost projects that will fizzle out?
Tuesday, December 9, 2008
What are the right circumstances? Sales promotions and other messages that have proven to be successful mobile marketing communications to start off are messages that could be well-received while consumers are in “shopping mode”. Nothing complex, naturally – the messages should be limited to something that the receiver can easily comprehend in a short amount of time without too much trouble (more on that later). Finally, I think the best implementation of proximity marketing is in a situation where message receivers can be targeted in some way. For example, at an athletic event or concert where those in the area share a common interest or trait would be a way to use Bluetooth devices as a marketing tool. The Beijing Olympics provided this type of a setting for a Coca Cola message to be well-received by attendees.
What are the wrong circumstances? Most of them probably aren’t conducive to these messages. A situation where the message cannot be targeted at all and is sent out randomly and clumsily to unsuspecting consumers does not benefit the company, marketer, or consumer. In many cases, it is just too much work for the consumer to receive the message. In other cases, it strongly resembles spam and other junk messages consumers receive all too often. There is no tailoring of the message, personalization, or benefit to the consumer at all.
One of the biggest advantages with it is that Bluetooth proximity marketing is highly measurable. It allows the service providers to make a buck as well (although I personally hardly consider adding to the marketing cost with this “middleman” type situation an advantage). The biggest problem with Bluetooth proximity marketing is that, essentially, the headsets were not designed to work this way. In order to view a video or visual message, the user must pair it with the device – kind of defeats the purpose of a headset, doesn’t it?
Wednesday, December 3, 2008
The messages are delivered in a cost-effective manner. There is no cost to put up an advergame on an already existing brand Web Site. Visitors play free of charge, but walk away with dozens of brand messages in their head. A typical 30 second television spot can cost advertisers $7-30 per thousand versus an estimated $2 per thousand for an advergame audience.
In-game branding is the use of computer and video games as a medium for advertising messages. As consumers’ attention is increasingly harder to get, marketers are looking to a variety of places to bring their messages. “Everyone recognizes that audiences are fragmented and consumer mindshare is limited given interaction with multiple forms of media at the same time,” says iMedia contributor Julie Shumaker.
Some in-game advertising is subtle, such as billboards in the background of the game scene. Some are less subtle, such as in 2005 when Sony introduced Everquest II. Players can order a Pizza Hut pizza without ever leaving their game. One thing is for sure, and that is that video game based advertising is growing at a rapid pace. There are firms that specialize in this type of marketing. Google (of course) has developed its own technology for in-game advertising.
Many people have issues with the ethics of advergaming and in-game branding with some referring to the former as “junk food games”. Researchers claim that children under the age of eight cannot differentiate between advertisement (persuasive content) and information. Some claim that this is only going to make the fight against childhood obesity worse. Brand representatives maintain that the key to fighting obesity is leading an active, healthy life – not the elimination of advertisement. Valid argument? You decide.
Monday, December 1, 2008
Consumers are protecting their electronic privacy now more than ever. Some ways that consumers are making their online habits more opaque include having multiple e-mail accounts, rejecting cookies, filtering spam, utilizing anonymizer or other similar technology, and activating fraud detectors. An October 2007 study by Habeas and Ipsos revealed:
· 73%: Survey participants use e-mail daily
· 62%: Concerned about becoming victims of fraud or cybercrime
· 60%: Say spam is becoming worse
· 83%: Say their e-mail client's user interface has a spam button
· 23%: Say their e-mail service has fraud detection
· 64%: Say permission/personal e-mail regularly get routed to the spam folder or blocked
These numbers are concrete proof that consumers want to keep out the unwanted messages. According to the Consumer Privacy Guide, “Currently there is no national law to protect the privacy of the information you share online, federal law and state law do offer some protection to various kinds of personal information collected about you … information maintained about you in the health care system, your education records, the record of your video rentals, to name a few.”
Since there is not a strict legal outline for marketers to follow, it is important to adhere to best practices to maintain a level of credibility. Sometimes, by acting in a questionable manner, e-mail marketers can do more damage than a lawsuit can carry such as damage to brand credibility, loss of trust, poor response rates, and waves of unsubscribe requests. The key here, is the opt-in involving proper notice and consent. By acting in an ethical manner, marketers ensure that their messages will be received in the best possible light by consumers.
Tuesday, November 25, 2008
Issues over truth and honesty
In his bestseller, “All Marketers are Liars,” Seth Godin makes the assertion that there are two ways to communicate: to rely on facts and what’s right and to tell a story that fits our worldview. In his opinion, the storytellers (read: marketers) win every time. According to Amazon’s description of the book, “Successful marketers don't talk about features or even benefits. Instead, they tell a story. A story we want to believe.”
The problem lies in the fact that lies are inevitably exposed, muddying the good name of the brand, product, or service. Some lies are more transparent than others. Godin’s blog exposes some of the more futile efforts of marketers to position a product, such as Red Lobster’s claim to be from Maine and American Spirit’s leading (not quite an outright claim, just not a denial of the assumptions) that all-natural tobacco is better for you than regular tobacco. The answer here, is just don’t lie or mislead – obviously, it looks bad. Red Lobster doesn’t have a single restaurant in Maine, and this isn’t difficult information to find. Red Lobster has plenty of other positive attributes for the marketing department to make valid claims to.
Issues with violence, sex and profanity
Everyone has heard that sex sells – and it really does for many companies. It attracts attention in ways that other methods simply cannot do. American Apparel has come under fire for its provocative advertising (among other things). In fact, it has an entire section of its Web Site dedicated to displaying its controversial advertisements. American Apparel’s advertising is famous for another reason: they use only non-models and they do not usually airbrush. Therefore, there is an air of reality in them that other ads do not have which is praised by some (for not creating the “perfect woman”) and criticized by others (for making them less of a fantasy and therefore more pornographic). Who is right? Roberta Clarke, branding expert and marketing professor at Boston University, states that the CEO “is intent on getting the awareness with the billboards, but with some people the perception is that this guy is engaging in pedophilia by virtue by having fairly young girls in pornographic positions. Yes there are freedoms, but there are also responsibilities. This seems irresponsible."
The FCC has specific rules for obscene, indecent, and profane material (yes, those are three separate categories). Obscene material is not protected under our First Amendment rights, indecent material is protected and therefore can only be prohibited in certain time slots, and profane material seems to be at the discretion of the Commission. Advertisers should follow these rules and regs, particularly if they are looking to air content that will be viewed by minor audiences. Some commercials that have been found to be too steamy for American audiences are here, here, and here (note: too steamy might mean that you should be 18 to click).
Issues with negative advertising
“To attack a rival is never good advertising. Don't point out others' faults. It is not permitted in the best mediums. It is never good policy. The selfish purpose is apparent. It looks unfair, not sporty.” Well said, Mr. Hopkins. Negative advertising is still apparent, though – people watch it for the same reason they watch intently as they drive by an ambulance.
Having just come off a record-breaking election, Americans are very familiar with negative advertising. Does it work for politicians? In a word, yes. Attack ads ask us to vote against someone rather than for someone, and it is a very convincing tactic. Sometimes, it is easier to make a decision based on what you don’t want. Does negative advertising work for companies? Not usually. Unlike politicians, companies hardly ever mention specific competition let alone run negative ads. Why is it different? A war of words would turn off consumers of both brands in the end; you don’t want to consume a product that is found to be undesirable, as the outcome would inevitably prove to be for both warring brands. Unless you are running for office, keep it positive and raise the brand up – don’t tear another one down.
Thursday, November 20, 2008
One of the most successful examples of crowdsourcing is iStockphoto.com. iStockphoto is an image database of amateur photography and graphic design that licenses the pieces for $1 or more. By using their images, small design firms increase their profit margin dramatically, (Howe, para. 7). Other examples of crowdsourcing include open source software such as the Linux operating system or the Wikipedia encyclopedia. It is a phenomenon that is growing in popularity and credibility.
What are some of the ways it has been applied to the marketing world? Mountain Dew decided to give the marketing & PR department a rest and started Dewmocracy – the journey to create the next Mountain Dew. Contestants uploaded their ideas of what the best type of event Mountain Dew should hold for its in-market launch of the Voltage. Ideas they got ranged from a Vegas launch to creating mythical Beverage Wars across the country.
One opportunist, Laurel Papworth, has taken it one step further by starting the world’s first crowdsourced ad agency, Twitter Agency. The Web Site states, “Any of the people contributing here are available for hire as Twitter experts.” It began as an experiment to win the $30 million Vodafone account up for grabs announced on October 1. Whether or not she succeeds in that goal, she likely has unearthed a great deal of marketing talent that can gain a lot of contract work.
What do you think - is crowdsourcing the way of the future or a cheap ploy by companies to take advantage of free ideas?
Tuesday, November 18, 2008
Building buzz sounds easier than it is. As easy as it is for a consumer to pass on interesting tidbits about a company or product, it is just as easy for them to disregard it if it fails to catch their interest. You have to make it fun and/or interesting in order to keep people talking and writing about you. In addition, you have to follow up to maintain the interest in the demographic. Often marketers fail to do this and millions of marketing dollars are wasted. According to Saatchi marketing consultant Jon Ray, “A great way to remedy this is to build your product the best it can be, create a way to promote it that is newsworthy, couple that event with appropriate advertising and then continue to engage your consumer with branded content and relevant information on the web.”
It is important in the marketing environment today, to be innovative in order to create buzz. Some techniques that marketers use to get people talking include advertising, viral campaigns, guerilla marketing, public relations, crowdsourcing, blogging, and others. Blogging is an increasingly important tool for the Integrated Marketing Communication mix, as they are cheap and easy to maintain. Blogging has other benefits as well. Apparently, they are more “Googlelicious” than Web Sites and can offer just as much information. According to Patrick Galvin of Galvin Communications, professionals can benefit in three ways:
1. It shows existing clients/consumers as well as prospective parties added value
2. It keeps companies or professionals on the cutting edge of information
3. Blog posts rank higher than Web Site content therefore making them more visible
Remember: blogging is all about communicating. Buzz is about creating communication. By creating content that your audience is interested in and structuring it so that it flows like an interactive conversation, the buzz will come.
Wednesday, November 12, 2008
Most realize that this will lead to a change, large or small, in how advertisements will be done for television. A team of panelists on The Future of Television Advertising discussed possible solutions to the changing atmosphere. Some of these solutions often thrown around are to make better commercials so people will be engaged to watch them, to increase product placement, and to make television ads interactive. Tomorrows Trends introduces the idea of “ad words” where text is shown during commercials that are fast-forwarded. Most advertising professionals realize that television advertising will continue to be important, though many continue to suggest that it is quickly going the way of the radio spot.
TiVo CEO Tom Rogers does little to appease anxious advertisers: “There are going to be 50 or 60 million DVRs in homes over the next few years. The majority of television ads in those homes simply won’t be seen. It’s going to be incredibly painful for advertisers, for the whole television industry, if they don’t comprehend the urgency of that." So what’s a billion dollar industry to do?
Most solutions bring up that ever-present buzzword: interactive. TiVo has already begun aggressively incorporating embedding advertising throughout its navigation menus. As of July, TiVo teamed up with Amazon to make it possible to purchase related products while watching specific shows with their remote control. Although this could be a powerful new marketing tool, other DVR systems (which are the vast majority of the market) haven’t followed suit yet. Most industry analysts remain skeptical of the potential, but at this point, who can say exactly what direction it will take?
Wednesday, November 5, 2008
After the dot.com bust up of 2000, internet ad revenue did a nose-dive as we are all aware. Marketers began to write-off the medium; but, is it really so different from "old" media? Advertisers are beginning to look at internet advertising much the same way as traditional advertising – just because users don't click on an ad does not mean there was no communication. Consumers can't click on a television spot or a print ad either. For a marketer, "using the word 'hits' . . . puts a scarlet letter on your head that you don't know what you're doing," (Taylor, para. 5). An Internet ad that isn't clicked-through still can bring about the same benefits as a print ad – brand awareness and message communication – even when the user does not visit the connecting Web Site.
One example of this 'old' train of thought comes from none other than Lord Saatchi himself. Lord Maurice Saatchi has received criticism for an op-Ed piece he wrote for the Financial Times stating that, "Human nature is not amenable to prediction based on the trends or tendencies prevailing at the time. It is amenable to startling creativity of the kind practiced by great artists, directors, writers, musicians, actors, who know how to touch a chord in humans everywhere," (para. 13). His basic premise is that Google provides little in the way to assist advertisers. Further, he supports his conclusion with the late Viscount Rothmere's assertion that research on consumers is unhelpful: "Getting someone else's newspaper is like getting into someone else's bath after they've just left it," (para. 9). Gross. This OpEd piece underscores the differences between the old train of thought and new ideas in marketing.
Bloggers are quick to point out the ridiculousness of this article. Of course Google's AdSense is a marketer's dream: targeting users, reducing waste, increasing efficacy and ROI. Google has more information on individual consumers than the IRS. So is it "out with the old" and in with the Google? Not so fast.
According to a piece in the New York Times, Google is turning to agencies for help in getting advertisers to use more extensive Google products such as click-to-play video, Google Earth mapping, and geographic finding of users. "We've been out there meeting with a lot of agencies and clients so they understand at a brand level, at a creative level, at a media-planning level, how they can use the palette we have," said Tim Armstrong, vice president for advertising sales at Google. Looks like Madison Ave. can take a deep breath.
(Taylor, Catherine P. "New Media as Old Media." Brandweek. 6/30/2003)
Social networking is one of the more effective methods of marketing to develop in recent years. By 2011, it is projected that this sector will hit $2.5 billion at an increase of 180%. When done effectively, it can be an effective tool for marketers to promote their companies. It is simple, cheap, and does not require a large time investment. It is not for all businesses, however, and some drawbacks include a perception that social network marketing is not professional and that you may not be able to adequately reach your target market through this method.
Email Marketing - it’s not sexy, but it is effective. Here are five reasons why according to E-Consultancy:
1. Email can help you achieve your business goals
2. Keeping customers in the loop = happy customers
3. It’s more cost effective anyway: offline direct marketing is more $$
4. Customer intelligence: it is highly targetable
5. Improved overall online marketing
Email marketing has more benefits overall according to a study by ExactTarget. An excerpt from the study states that, “18- to 34-year-olds claim they are more likely to be influenced to make purchases based on e-mail marketing messages and direct mail than marketing messages on social networks,” said Mike Bloxham, director, insight and research, Ball State University’s Center for Media Design. “It is too easy to assume that the media consumers choose for their own news, information and entertainment are, by default, the best media to use for marketing messages. This is a dangerous assumption to make in a time when consumers are becoming increasingly aware of their level of control over their media experiences.” This is attributed to the fact that most consumers believe that communication channels such as social networks, SMS, etc. are off-limits to marketers and private.
Thursday, October 30, 2008
According to Marketing Terms, Viral Marketing is a marketing phenomenon that facilitates and encourages people to pass along a marketing message. Viral marketing relies on a high pass-along rate, or generating a buzz, with the target market. Other terms used to describe this phenomenon include “buzz marketing,” “word-of-mouth marketing,” “word-of mouse marketing,” and “stealth marketing.” Viral marketing is basically a modern equivalent of WOM (word-of-mouth) marketing, and it can easily fizzle out if momentum is not adequate.
The strengths of viral marketing include a much-reduced cost compared to the use of traditional marketing outlets, such as television spots, print ads, etc. The cost of forwarding the branding message falls on the communicator rather than the company. Another major strength of this type of marketing is that it is highly targeted. Jodi Lisa Smith goes into more detail about this aspect of viral marketing with discussions on the Diffusion of Innovations Theory. Messages are typically moved from one person to others within their network. Therefore, the inherent design of viral marketing tends to be self-targeted.
Some weaknesses of this type of marketing include that there is very little measurability and lack of control. We all know how important the mighty ROI is, and it is difficult to prove the worthiness of a viral campaign. It can be to a company’s detriment to lose control over the message being sent. If anybody remembers the childhood game of telephone, you can understand how messages can be misconstrued through the chain of communication. There is also some controvery about the ethicality of this type of marketing. Ralph Nader has argued that, "stealth marketing is an act of desperation on the part of the advertising industry."
A notable example of successful viral marketing includes the campaign for The Dark Knight. This has been one of the most extensive viral marketing campaigns that I have ever witnessed. Techniques under this campaign included mass gatherings of Joker fans, scavenger hunts around world, websites that let fans participate in "voting" for political offices in Gotham City, and even a Gotham News Network (The Gotham Times and The HaHaHa Times). Joker fans would visit Why So Serious, to become recruited members of the Joker’s army. The website listed a number of addresses and visitors were told to go there and give the name “Robin Banks.” Each location was a bakery, participants were given a cake with a phone number in icing on it. When the participant called the number, a cellphone that was baked inside the cake began to ring with a message from the Joker himself along with his calling card. Talk about creative.